Abiodun Oyewole – One of the First Last Poets – Talks About Legacy, and Hip Hop

A founding member of the American music and spoken-word group The Last Poets, Abiodun Oyewole is also called a founding father of hip hop. Public Enemy, A Tribe Referred to as Quest, Wu-Tang Clan, Erykah Badu, and numerous others cite The Last Poets as a significant affect. “When The Revolution Comes,” from the Last Poets’ eponymous 1970 debut album, has been sampled in “Party and Bullshit,” by The Infamous B.I.G.; “Concerto in X Minor,” by Model Nubian; and “Prolly,” by Sevyn Streeter, that includes Gucci Mane. Samples of “On the Subway,” from the similar album, have been utilized by Digable Planets. The checklist goes on. 

Oyewole was born Charles Davis, in Cincinnati, however grew up in Queens and often attended church in Harlem, a spot of congregation, inspiration, and social measurement; his mom inspired him to recite The Lord’s Prayer at such quantity that he could possibly be heard all through the household residence. Additionally inspiring was the poetry of Langston Hughes and his household’s gospel and jazz information. At 15, out of curiosity, Davis and a pal went to a Yoruban Temple in Harlem and the priest carried out a ceremony and gave him the title Abiodun Oyewole.

Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated when Oyewole was 20 years previous, and it had a profound influence on him. After the assassination, Oyewole, like many others, was outraged and needed to take radical motion—because of a pal and fellow poet, he was capable of finding constructive, artistic shops of expression. As a baby, Oyewole had additionally been made conscious of Malcolm X, and heard that he was “telling the truth.” Malcolm X’s significance would ultimately loom giant for the poet. 

The Last Poets started as a gaggle when authentic members David Nelson and Oyewole shared their poems with one another. From that first album onward, they confronted listeners with risky points of the day, together with city decay, earnings inequality, and racism. The album’s first monitor is titled “Run Nigger,” and that phrase seems repeatedly all through the work. The group’s said intent was to elucidate America’s historical past of mistreatment of Black folks, and finally to dismantle programs of oppression in addition to to encourage and elevate Black communities. “When we said ‘Niggers’ we were not talking about a Black person; we were talking about a misguided, discombobulated human being,” says Oyewole. “Somebody who’s totally out of sorts, who does not know who he is, and has decided to take on ugly characteristics that should never have happened in the first place. But this is what some of us have been designed to be in America. It starts with hating yourself.”  


As far I’m involved, ladies are the motor of any tradition, land, or place on the planet. They make all the things occur. They offer us their lives as a human race.


Right this moment, Oyewole, extremely considered a poet, creator, and trainer, feels conflicted about the method many hip hop artists have adopted the phrase “nigger” to signify a heroic determine, shedding the revolutionary and finally edifying goal of The Last Poets’ message. However Oyewole persists—writing, making music, and inspiring generations of younger creatives. With the assist of his household, he launched a brand new album, Gratitude, and on August 18 carried out as half of Summerstage with Jamaaladeen Tacuma’s Band of Resistance and different acts, in Marcus Garvey Park, the place The Last Poets had held their first efficiency, in 1968. 

The Voice spoke with Oyewole about his background, the historical past of the group, and the enduring legacy of The Last Poets. (The interview has been edited for size and readability.)


MC: What was influential for you in your path to changing into a poet? 

AO: Ladies, with out query, even from a younger age. Once I began writing poetry, I actually began as a result of I needed to impress ladies. I assume I knew ladies had some information and knowledge that I needed. Although I couldn’t clarify it as a baby, as I acquired older, I noticed it. 

I’ve at all times marveled at ladies as a result of they’ve navigated by means of life higher than males. In some ways, males rely upon their bodily prowess to be anyone, and ladies don’t have that at their disposal, so that they have to make use of different features. So poetry was a method for me to impress girls. Even to this present day, I attempt to do this. 

As far I’m involved, ladies are the motor of any tradition, land, or place on the planet. They make all the things occur. They offer us their lives as a human race. Don’t mock ladies, reward her, love her, cherish her, shield her. 

How did you first uncover Malcolm X, and what did he imply to you? 

I used to be raised in Queens, however we went to a Southern Baptist church in Harlem, on 108th Avenue between Central Park West and Manhattan Avenue, which was a pleasure for me. On Sundays, I didn’t must do any work besides clear the whitewall tires of my father’s Pontiac, which was mild blue and white. I don’t know in the event you can think about what which means. It was a critical standing image, however they solely work if the white of the tires is clear. My job was to verify they have been clear, with Brillo pads and cleaning soap. You possibly can’t drive as much as a church, which can be a social membership, with soiled tires. Church is a status-seeking image scenario. Folks checked out you, the method you have been dressed, the way you acted, to see the way you have been doing in life, and summarized all the things occurring simply by the way you appeared in church. So, my father needed to do church proper.

We’d go to my father’s sister’s home—we referred to as her Aunt Child—after church. I keep in mind I used to be sitting in the again seat, like I’d at all times sat, I used to be possibly 11 or 12. [From the car I saw] this man who appeared orange, and he was taller than everybody else. I had no thought who he was. I keep in mind my aunt saying to my mom, “They’re gonna kill that man because he’s telling the truth.” I needed to leap into the dialog, however I used to be raised at a time when youngsters have been to be seen, not heard. I used to be pondering, “If I don’t tell the truth, I’m gonna get a whooping.” Telling the fact was an important worth, so it didn’t make sense to me. I used to be very confused. Anyway, a number of years down the line, Malcolm X was assassinated. So I acquired a glimpse of him and heard what my aunt mentioned, however I didn’t acknowledge his significance till later. 

I went to Haaren Excessive Faculty, now referred to as John Jay Faculty. I’d come all the method from Queens. My homeroom trainer, Ms. Carpenter, was conscious of who Malcolm was. He was killed on a Sunday; the following Monday she mentioned, “He was a great man. You can all go home today.” 


I inform folks all the time, having a revolution sounds good, however we now have to know what we wish to do and be. We are able to’t simply get rid of one thing with out one thing to exchange it. Earlier than a revolution there must be an evolution.


How did The Last Poets start? 

After they killed Dr. King, in 1968, I felt like I’d simply been smacked in the face. They killed a person standing on a platform of peace, and they shot him down like a canine. I virtually misplaced my thoughts. 

That was a turning level in my life. I used to be working in an antipoverty program in East Harlem. The director, David Nelson, had the thought of making a collective of poets to talk out about the issues of the day. He needed not less than three guys to offer an instance to Black folks of how badly we would have liked to be unified, whether or not you have been Muslim, Christian, no matter, and to indicate that the similar foot was on all our necks. We each had that poetic thread in our veins. David informed me we’d learn poetry at a commemoration for Malcolm on Might 19, 1968, in Marcus Garvey Park. [Malcolm X was born May 19, 1925.]

The director of recreation [at the antipoverty program], Michael Gorkin, was a Jewish man. I used to be 18, and on the point of go to highschool in Iowa. He supplied me his residence to crash in and on the desk there was a e-book, The Autobiography of Malcolm X, by Alex Haley, with a observe that mentioned, “You ought to read this.” I used to be very grateful and motivated to the max, and shortly after, The Last Poets have been born. 

All of us younger males at the moment beloved Malcolm and used poetry as our car to precise ourselves. We have been like disciples of Malcolm. That was by no means extra true than for The Last Poets. We have been born on his birthday. I’ve at all times had reverence for him. 

So Malcolm turned a really central determine in my life, primarily as a result of he stood up for the manhood of Black males. He made us acknowledge that we should always by no means be lower than who we’re presupposed to be. It’s not gonna be handed to us naturally, it’s one thing that we now have to demand. And I used to be with that. I used to be raised like that. Malcolm’s persona match me completely. So The Last Poets was an element of the legacy of being raised in Queens by my workaholic father and my loving mom. All that gave me a fundamental basis to like and admire Malcolm X. 

I’ve learn the e-book and agree, it’s nice. 

What’s so lovely about it’s that it takes you thru the evolution of Malcolm X. I inform folks all the time, having a revolution sounds good, however we now have to know what we wish to do and be. We are able to’t simply get rid of one thing with out one thing to exchange it. Earlier than a revolution there must be an evolution. Malcolm went by means of a bunch of completely different characters [Malcolm Little, Detroit Red, El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz] earlier than he found himself as Malcolm X. And that’s completely different from Martin Luther King Jr., who was born with a silver spoon in his mouth. King’s mom was a trainer, and his father was a preacher. I don’t suppose Martin ever skilled poverty. 

He was on a unique path. 




I’ve the first Last Poets album. Tracks like “On The Subway” actually inform a narrative and give a way of the instances and locations and nonetheless really feel very related at present. How do you see the legacy of your work and its impact on different genres, together with hip hop?

Usually, all poetry has a timeless issue as a result of poetry often comes from the fact. And all the poet does is attempt to embellish it with phrases that entertain the creativeness, in order that fact doesn’t dwindle. It’s really magnified by means of the poet’s eyes, and that’s actually all we tried to do. And the fact we tried to enlarge and deliver forth was the expertise of Black folks, one thing that Langston Hughes was superior at doing. However Langston Hughes didn’t have the revolutionary fervor that we got here with. 


I don’t like that hip hop doesn’t respect its elders. It ought to, as a result of in the event you’re fortunate you’re gonna be an elder sooner or later, and you’d prefer to be revered. 


We got here with concepts of making modifications. So we addressed the “Nigger.” The “Nigger” was a featured character in our work as a result of we knew this was a creation that was harming us. We couldn’t see the “Nigger” as anyone that you must champion. The “Nigger” was a personality created out of slavery. I found the authentic “Nigger” was actually a hybrid animal created to assist the slaves on the plantation, and that animal was a mule. And that was the nickname for the mule. The white man created the mule by breeding a horse with a donkey that might not reproduce himself. He additionally took the African man, a Mandingo, and stripped him of his title, language, all the things. He has handled this human being identical to a mule. So in each instances, the mule and this human being are property of the grasp. Due to this fact he can name the mule “Nigger” and this Black man on two toes “Nigger.” So the phrase “Nigger” was used for the man and the animal. They have been one and the similar. They have been each there to create wealth for him, to work for him. They have been each his property. 

We talked about that unfavourable ingredient of individuals who didn’t wish to observe guidelines, couldn’t set up, who needed to tear issues down with egocentric conduct. We addressed that poison in the Black neighborhood. So I wrote a poem that went “Run nigger, run nigger. Get out of here. We don’t need you.” David wrote a poem that mentioned, “Die Nigger, Nigger die.” Let the Black particular person emerge, cease being a “Nigger.” Gylan Kain had the best poem I’ve heard in my life coping with the complete idea of “Niggers.” It was referred to as “Niggers Are Untogether People.” It was a traditional poem. He actually breaks it down. One of his most riveting traces was “Niggers killed Malcolm. Fuck the CIA. Niggers held the guns.” You possibly can’t get any extra express than that. That’s clear. 

The factor that bothers me about the affect of The Last Poets in hip hop is that there are such a lot of artists who seek advice from “Nigger” as their finest pal. “Nigger” has change into the phrase that has captivated folks round the world. We have been in Rome a number of years in the past, in a pleasant lodge. I acquired up early to exit for a stroll. I used to be standing in entrance of the constructing and some white boys say to one another, “Yo, what’s up nigger?” I mentioned, “Oh my god, this is ridiculous!” 

It’s utilized by all people as a result of hip hop has made the “Nigger” highly effective and very, very well-known. I do know Chuck D, Nas, and Rakim, who don’t use it that a lot, however so much of different cats do, and they ask, “Y’all use it, why can’t we?” Should you take heed to what we mentioned, we mentioned, “Yeah, but we didn’t say ‘Be it,’ we were saying, ‘Don’t be a Nigger,’ and now you’re embracing it as if it’s the only thing to be. That word has evolved. The hip hop world uses it as someone who’s a rebel, fighting against the system all the time. The “Nigger” is continually a soldier towards the system round him, and many individuals round the world establish with that character. 

There are some issues about hip hop I don’t agree with. I don’t like the indisputable fact that hip hop is sloppy. I don’t like that hip hop doesn’t respect its elders. It ought to, as a result of in the event you’re fortunate you’re gonna be an elder sooner or later, and you’d prefer to be revered. I don’t agree with the look with pants hanging off your ass. I don’t like cursing and sloppy features. I’d like us to create in a constructive method that makes life more healthy and extra significant. However we’ve gotten onto this path of creating with out creating something uplifting, and that’s not good. 

This can be a very pivotal time in the world, and hip hop drops some stuff that may put us on a good course. We’ve so much of folks dying not simply from the virus but in addition from despair and not having the ability to socialize with one another. Hip hop can lead us into a spot to assist us develop. However as an alternative, it talks about “bitches” and “hoes,” and all that bullshit, and that’s not working.


Hip hop artists like KRS1 and Public Enemy have been very instructional and inspirational, together with for white folks.

Proper. Chuck D mentioned, “Fight the Power.” That was directional stuff. That’s a revolutionary assertion, no matter language you communicate or tradition you’re from. We all know the authorities will be very oppressive. They don’t care who they oppress. You’ll get mashed down too, ultimately. 

What recollections do you’ve got of working with file producer Alan Douglas on the first album? 

I had spoken with Jimi Hendrix, who had labored with Alan. I keep in mind I didn’t wish to be a recording artist. I needed to be a revolutionary, utilizing poetry like ammunition firing at the system. However our managers instructed it, so I went together with it. I didn’t wish to go downtown to audition, so Alan got here uptown and we auditioned for him at IS 201, on 128th, on the 2nd flooring in a classroom. He mentioned, “I’m ready to record anytime you are.”

The subsequent time I noticed him was down at Influence Sound recording studio. Aspect one was our first set, aspect two was our second set. That album is a one-take deal; there aren’t any second takes, apart from our conga participant Nilaja, who laced it with completely different drums.  

I keep in mind I instructed placing our phrases on the inside cowl of our first album so folks might perceive what we have been saying. We have been the first American band to do this—earlier than us, solely the Beatles had completed that, with Sgt. Pepper. 


Usually, all poetry has a timeless issue as a result of poetry often comes from the fact. And all the poet does is attempt to embellish it with phrases that entertain the creativeness, in order that fact doesn’t dwindle.


What did you communicate to Jimi Hendrix about? 

He dug what we have been doing, and mentioned, “We gotta get something together,” and I mentioned, “By all means.” He had the similar revolutionary spirit that we had. In order that door was open. 

Later, Hendrix recorded with The Last Poets on “Doriella Du Fontaine.”

Yeah, with Jalal [a later member of The Last Poets]. However by that point, I had left. I didn’t have the persistence I’ve now ’trigger I used to be transferring at mild velocity. Each month was like a yr. The poetry and the accolades weren’t enough. I saved looking for one thing I might actually latch onto. 

I believe my forte is being a trainer. That’s actually the place my power lies, even at present. I do have a ardour for that. The factor that makes me really feel my price is imparting info to others and serving to them discover a method to develop their abilities and crafts. I get the largest thrill out of that.   

Did you ever work together with The Watts Prophets? 

We had an opportunity to do a gig collectively about 20 years in the past, at a college in Los Angeles, California, {that a} professor had organized. They mentioned, “We started before you guys.” I mentioned, ‘“So? Who wowed the crowd? You may have started before us, but nobody knew you.” They mentioned, “OK, you got it!” 

There was a bit competitors and rivalry, however we by no means let it get in the method. We revered one another. I used to be pleased that we carried out collectively. We even mentioned recording, however that by no means occurred. 

There have been no actual teams that took off behind us. We didn’t have any competitors from collectives of poets. Nobody might contact what we have been doing at the moment. We had an ideal formulation with three poets and a conga participant. When the first album got here out, it bought nicely, which stunned Alan Douglas.


Are you able to inform me about present tasks and your new album? 

If I don’t have a venture, I don’t really feel like I’m dwelling. In the final three years, I’ve been portray. My children put them up on the partitions. I assume I have to be doing one thing cool. I do it as a result of it’s therapeutic. It’s a unique medium of expression and provides me so much of pleasure. I believe I’m enhancing. I’d be upset if I wasn’t. No matter I do, I need it to be higher. I need it to be nice. I’m by no means actually glad. 

We ended up producing an outstanding album called Gratitude. My household’s concerned; I’ve a grandson who does tracks by laptop. He does phenomenal stuff and has some particular expertise. Usually, I solely work with actual musicians and don’t do laptop music. However he created some tracks that sounded attention-grabbing. My son Oba would recommend a monitor to go together with a poem, and that’s how this album got here to be. I’m very proud of the album. It’s a household venture from A to Z. That’s why I like it. 

I’m blown away by the magic of social media, however I’m probably not into it. I haven’t purchased, and refuse to purchase, a mobile phone. It’s much less hectic with out one. I’ve a pockets, and that’s all I’m involved about retaining. I attempt to remove as a lot stress out of my life as attainable. 

What retains you going? 

The best way I used to be raised has so much to do with it. Having the proper mother and father, the proper folks, and having an optimistic look on life as a result of all of us have to beat troublesome issues. The way you handle these moments determines who you actually are. My reverence to my ancestors and the spiritual order that I imagine in, Yoruba. My religion is powerful, however that’s solely as a result of I’m prepared to work as nicely. That’s allowed me to perform some issues that I’m proud of.  

Michael Cobb is a author, musician, and podcaster primarily based in Brooklyn. His work has appeared in the New York Metropolis Jazz File, Shindig!ElmoreThe IndypendentRuta 66, and Mondo Sonoro, amongst others, and on the web site Please Kill Me.



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